Jaharatul Dini Karen Lee Abdullah, Nazri Ali, Roslli Noor Mohamed, Mohammed Mu’azu Abdullahi


The numerous demanding application of concrete is not readily met with Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) alone. To meet up the demand and as well as ensured the green concrete durability, it has becomes necessary to incorporate mineral additions with the best combination of others by-product as replacement to improve the performance without jeopardizing the strength of the concrete. In the construction industry, OPC cement and river sand are used as important building material making it scarce and limited. Whereas, as for the cement is well known as the biggest culprits for emitting carbon dioxide (CO2). Hence, partial replacement of cement becomes a necessity as well as natural sand in concrete by waste material or by-product without compromising the quality of the end product. Partial replacement with Ground Granulated Blast furnace Slag (GGBS), Fly Ash (PFA), Silica Fumes (SILICA) incorporates with 100% of Quarry Dust (QD) as sand replacement. The usage of 100% QD with OPC+PFA+SILICA (Mix 2) produced more durable concrete with good temperature control and better furnishing than with 100% river. In addition to the cost effect benefit, the reduction in depletion of river sand, addressing environment and sustainability issues, it is a valuable contribution in creating a green concrete.


green concrete, high strength, ground granulated blast furnace slag cement, fly ash, silica fumes, quarry dust, by-product

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