A Non-Instrumental Method to Determine Hydraulic Heads on Low-Lying Coastal Aquifer

Mohd Azraai Kassim, Muhammad Nassir Hanapi, Mohd Haron Abdullah


The technique introduced in this paper is to provide an alternative method to
determine hydraulic heads in an unconfined coastal aquifer. The heads could be
established within a study area without the needs to use any instrument, such as a
theodolite. Instead, a less costly small-diameter transparent tube is used to
produce a horizontal plane, formed by a balanced water level in it. Such planes
are used as reference levels between two wells on an area, which is relatively flat.
Current tidal heights are required in order to calibrate the measurements obtained
from the reference levels to the mean sea level. The application of this method at
field as a.case study has revealed the reduction and critical condition of h in the
phreatic aquifer of a small island, due to the frequent pumping of the wells.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.11113/mjce.v12.77


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